In 1686 the tract of land between the Byram and Mianus rivers was traded by the Miossehasseky Indians for just thirty acres of planting ground elsewhere. Known then as Horseneck, it was the principal farming area of the town and supplied much of the produce for New York. The advent of the railroad in the mid-nineteenth century was an economic boon for central Greenwich, transforming Greenwich Avenue into the major shopping center it is today, with its many upscale stores and top-rated restaurants. Trademarks of the Avenue are the uniformed policemen who direct traffic every weekday. Central Greenwich is the hub of economic activity and the seat of town government. It is also where the main Greenwich library, Bruce Museum, Greenwich Hospital and many other town institutions are located.

The central Greenwich area offers a wide range of residential opportunities, from apartments and condominiums convenient to shopping and public transportation to mid-country homes and the exclusive waterfront properties in Belle Haven and Mead Point.